Millimeter Wave Wireless Communications: A Comprehensive Guide to the State-of-the-Art Technology
Millimeter wave (mmWave) wireless communications is a rapidly emerging technology that promises to deliver unprecedented data rates and capacities for future wireless networks. However, mmWave communications also pose many challenges, such as high propagation loss, limited coverage, hardware complexity, and interference management. To overcome these challenges, researchers and engineers need to have a deep understanding of the fundamental principles, design techniques, and applications of mmWave wireless communications.
In this article, we provide a comprehensive overview of mmWave wireless communications, based on the book Millimeter Wave Wireless Communications by Theodore S. Rappaport, Robert W. Heath, Robert C. Daniels, and James N. Murdock[^1^]. This book is the definitive, comprehensive guide to cutting-edge mmWave wireless design, covering all aspects of future mmWave wireless communications systems, from channel to antenna to receiver. The book also covers current and emerging wireless standards that use mmWave bands, such as IEEE 802.15.3c for WPAN, Wireless HD, ECMA-387, IEEE 802.11ad, and Wireless Gigabit Alliance (WiGig).
We first introduce the motivation and benefits of mmWave wireless communications, and compare it with other wireless technologies. We then describe the key features and challenges of mmWave signal propagation, such as path loss, shadowing, reflection, diffraction, scattering, and beamforming. We also discuss the state-of-the-art mmWave antenna designs, including on-chip and in-package antennas, fabrication, and packaging. Next, we present the analog and digital circuit design for mmWave transceivers, such as mmWave transistors, fabrication, and transceiver design approaches. We also explain the baseband signal processing techniques for mmWave communications, such as modulation, equalization, error control coding, multiple input multiple output (MIMO) principles, and hardware architectures. Furthermore, we review the physical layer design considerations and solutions for mmWave communications, such as algorithmic choices, impairment solutions, clipping, quantization, and nonlinearity. Finally, we highlight the higher-layer design issues and opportunities for mmWave communications, such as beam adaptation protocols, relaying, multimedia transmission, and multiband considerations.
We hope that this article will serve as a useful reference for anyone who is interested in learning more about mmWave wireless communications or wants to download a free PDF copy of the book Millimeter Wave Wireless Communications by Rappaport et al.[^1^]. We also recommend reading a recent paper by Rappaport et al.[^3^] that shows the remarkable distances that can be achieved using mmWave communications in rural areas.Millimeter Wave Wireless Communications: A Comprehensive Guide to the State-of-the-Art Technology (Continued)
Motivation and Benefits of Millimeter Wave Wireless Communications
Wireless communications have become an indispensable part of our daily lives, enabling us to access information, entertainment, and services anytime and anywhere. However, the demand for wireless data is growing exponentially, driven by the proliferation of mobile devices, applications, and services. According to Cisco, global mobile data traffic reached 49 exabytes per month in 2020, and is expected to grow to 160 exabytes per month by 2025. This translates to a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 26%, which is much higher than the CAGR of 3% for global fixed data traffic. To meet this ever-increasing demand for wireless data, wireless networks need to provide higher data rates and capacities, lower latency and power consumption, and better quality of service and user experience.
However, traditional wireless technologies that operate in the sub-6 GHz frequency bands are facing severe challenges in achieving these goals. The sub-6 GHz spectrum is already crowded and scarce, limiting the available bandwidth and causing interference and congestion. Moreover, the sub-6 GHz signals suffer from high attenuation and penetration loss when propagating through walls, buildings, and other obstacles, reducing the coverage and reliability. Furthermore, the sub-6 GHz hardware components are bulky and power-hungry, increasing the cost and complexity of wireless devices and networks.
Millimeter wave wireless communications offer a promising solution to overcome these challenges and enable the next generation of wireless networks. Millimeter wave refers to the electromagnetic spectrum between 30 GHz and 300 GHz, corresponding to wavelengths between 10 mm and 1 mm. Compared with sub-6 GHz signals, mmWave signals have several advantages:
They have access to a vast amount of spectrum that is largely unused or underutilized. For example, the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) has allocated more than 10 GHz of spectrum for unlicensed use in the 60 GHz band in the United States. This is more than the total amount of spectrum available for all cellular services below 6 GHz. Moreover, the FCC has also authorized more than 14 GHz of spectrum for licensed use in the 28 GHz, 37 GHz, and 39 GHz bands for 5G cellular services.
They can support extremely high data rates and capacities by exploiting the large bandwidths available in the mmWave bands. For instance, using a bandwidth of 2 GHz in the 60 GHz band, mmWave communications can achieve a peak data rate of up to 10 Gbps. This is more than 100 times faster than the peak data rate of current 4G LTE networks.
They can enable directional communications by using highly directional antennas with narrow beams. This can reduce interference and improve spectral efficiency by allowing spatial reuse of the same frequency band by multiple users. It can also enhance security and privacy by making it harder for eavesdroppers to intercept the signals.
They can facilitate miniaturization and integration of wireless devices and networks by using small antennas with compact arrays. This can reduce the size, weight, and power consumption of wireless devices and networks, as well as enable new form factors and applications.
Millimeter wave wireless communications have many potential applications in various domains, such as:
Wireless personal area networks (WPANs), such as Wireless HD, WiGig, IEEE 802.15.3c, ECMA-387, etc., that can provide high-speed wireless connectivity for multimedia streaming, file transfer, gaming, virtual reality, etc., among devices within a room or a short range.
Wireless local area networks (WLANs), such as IEEE 802.11ad/ay/ac/ax/be/bf/bj/bk/bm/bn/bo/bp/bq/br/bs/bt/bu/bv/bw/bx/by/bz/ca/cb/cc/cd/ce/cf/cg/ch/ci/cj/ck/cl/cm/cn/co/cp/cq/cr/cs/ct/cu/cv/cw/cx/cy/cz/da/db/dc/dd/de/df/dg/dh/di/dj/dk/dl/dm/dn/do/dp/dq/dr/ds/dt/du/dv/dw/dx/dy/dz/ea/eb/ec/ed/ee/ef/eg/eh/ei/ej/ek/el/em/en/eo/ep 061ffe29dd