Fisiologia Gastrointestinal Lange: A Comprehensive Review of GI Physiology
Fisiologia Gastrointestinal Lange is a book that offers one of the most comprehensive reviews in the field of gastrointestinal (GI) physiology, guiding readers on a journey through the complete digestive tract, while also highlighting related organs and glandular systems. It is not solely limited to organ system physiology, and related disciplines like anatomy and histology, but also examines the molecular and cellular processes that keep the digestive system running. As such, the book provides extensive information on the molecular, cellular, tissue, organ, and system levels of functions in the GI system.
The book covers both traditional and contemporary topics in GI physiology, such as digestion and absorption, motility and secretion, neural and hormonal regulation, immunity and microbiome, acid-base balance and electrolyte transport, GI diseases and disorders, and pharmacology and therapeutics. It also includes clinical correlates that link basic science with clinical practice in special sections. The book is written in a clear and concise style, with numerous illustrations, tables, and diagrams to facilitate learning. It also features review questions and answers at the end of each chapter to help students assess their understanding.
Fisiologia Gastrointestinal Lange is a valuable resource for biomedical students, as well as healthcare and scientific professionals who want to deepen their knowledge of the GI system. It is part of the Lange Physiology Series, which provides authoritative and up-to-date information on various aspects of human physiology.
If you are interested in reading this book, you can download it as a PDF file from one of these sources:
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Gastrointestinal Physiology (Lange Physiology Series) - PDF Free Download[^3^]
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In this article, we will briefly review some of the main topics covered in Fisiologia Gastrointestinal Lange. We will start with the anatomy and histology of the GI tract, which consists of four layers: the mucosa, the submucosa, the muscularis externa, and the serosa. The mucosa is the innermost layer that contacts the luminal contents and performs the functions of digestion, absorption, secretion, and immunity. The submucosa is a connective tissue layer that contains blood vessels, lymphatics, nerves, and glands. The muscularis externa is composed of two or three layers of smooth muscle that contract to produce motility and mixing. The serosa is the outermost layer that covers the GI organs and consists of a thin layer of connective tissue and mesothelium.
The GI tract is divided into several regions that have different functions and characteristics. The mouth is the first part of the GI tract where food is ingested and mechanically broken down by chewing. The salivary glands secrete saliva that lubricates and moistens the food, initiates starch digestion by amylase, and protects against microbes by lysozyme and immunoglobulin A. The pharynx and esophagus are conduits that transport food from the mouth to the stomach by coordinated swallowing movements. The stomach is a muscular sac that stores food temporarily and mixes it with gastric juice to form chyme. The gastric juice contains hydrochloric acid that lowers the pH and activates pepsinogen to pepsin, which digests proteins. The stomach also secretes intrinsic factor that binds to vitamin B12 and facilitates its absorption in the ileum.
The small intestine is the longest and most important part of the GI tract where most of the digestion and absorption take place. It consists of three segments: the duodenum, the jejunum, and the ileum. The duodenum receives chyme from the stomach and bile from the liver and gallbladder, as well as pancreatic juice from the pancreas. Bile contains bile salts that emulsify fats and facilitate their digestion by lipase. Pancreatic juice contains bicarbonate that neutralizes the acidic chyme and enzymes that digest carbohydrates, proteins, and fats. The jejunum and ileum are responsible for absorbing the nutrients from the digested food into the blood or lymph. The small intestine has a large surface area due to its length, circular folds, villi, and microvilli. 061ffe29dd